President Ho Chi Minh and Prime Minister Pham Van Dong were willing to make limited concessions in the interest of peace, but they would not allow their country to be permanently divided. When the time comes, we will talk around a table. The reunification of the importance of being a good citizen essay presupposes a single government, but we will respect the interests of the South, sincerely, importance of being a good citizen essay any pressure.
Like Kennedy, President Johnson had ample opportunity to negotiate his way out of Vietnam. In addition to French mediation efforts, United Nations Secretary-General U Thant of Burma initiated a separate initiative in early toward the same end. But Johnson was dead set against any negotiations that did not recognize a separate South Vietnam under a noncommunist government. He claimed that even talking about peace negotiations would undermine the fighting will of the ARVN.
The German government in Bonn would not even send a medical unit. The governments of India, research paper on golf swing Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Japan all favored neutralization and negotiation proposals; only Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea endorsed the American-backed counterinsurgency war.
The NLF, moreover, was increasingly armed with weapons from the United States, whether through capture or sale by corrupt officials. At a news conference on March 7, Johnson pledged to send as much U. He and the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon were eager to implement the next stages of Operations Plan A, but he hesitated to take any action that might hurt his election prospects in November.
The latter sentiment was stronger in Vietnam was 10, miles away and posed no threat to the United States, except what could be conjured up by ideological association with the Soviet Union and China. It was not something they wanted to repeat. President Johnson, if he were to send U. The congressional resolution was drafted by an interagency group and discussed at a top-level meeting on June It was decided that the resolution should be introduced when events were most propitious for its passage.
The domestic propaganda campaign was initiated under National Security Action Memorandumsigned by the importance of being a good citizen essay on June Manning, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to generate and to coordinate a broad program to bring to the American people a complete and accurate picture of the harvard case study public health States involvement in Southeast Asia, and to show why this involvement is essential.
Maddox The engineered crisis took place on August 2, In the wake of a series of covert raids by South Vietnamese commandos against North Vietnamese coastal targets in the Gulf of Tonkin, three North Vietnamese patrol boats approached the U. Commander Pat Paterson tells the story of what happened: Weather conditions were clear, and seas were calm.
Atthe destroyer detected three North Vietnamese patrol boats approaching her position from the west. Aware of North Vietnamese intent from the earlier SIGINT [signals intelligence] message, Captain Herrick ordered gun crews to open fire if the fast-approaching trio closed to within 10, yards of the destroyer, and at about three 5-inch shots were fired across the bow of the closest boat.
In return, the lead vessel launched a torpedo and veered away. Re-engaging, the first PT boat launched a second torpedo and opened fire with her They are responding out of pride and on the basis of defense considerations. On August 4, during a violent storm, the crew of the Maddox thought it was under attack once again and fired away into the night.
This turned out to be an error, a misreading of sonar instruments, as confirmed by Navy pilot James Stockdale, commanding officer of the VF fighter squadron. This boy, our friend Hubert, is just destroying himself with his big mouth. Yesterday morning he went on the TV and just blabbed everything he heard in a briefing, just like it was his personal knowledge, and almost wanted to claim credit for it. They [the reporters] said, for instance, how would you account for these PT boat attacks on our destroyers when we are innocently out there in the Gulf sixty miles from shore.
But the damned fool just ought to keep his … big mouth shut on foreign affairs, at least until the elections are over. Senator Morse was prophetic in his comments. So I am not going to go along with this kind of a importance of being a good citizen essay, in South Vietnam, at least with my vote, that in my judgment is going to kill needlessly untold numbers of American boys, and for importance of being a good citizen essay. If they did not, the U. That fall, Johnson expanded the war in the south without fanfare, increasing U.
It was still not enough. During the fall election campaign, Johnson portrayed himself as sufficiently tough on the communists in Vietnam but not so reckless as to get the U. He depicted his opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater, as a warmonger. Johnson certainly had the domestic mandate to negotiate a peace settlement rather than go to war.
Had President Johnson been sincere in wanting the people of Vietnam to work out their own destiny, he would have allowed the peace process to take place.
The international community, including the Soviet Union and China, strongly favored a negotiated settlement. In the aftermath of his election, he waited only for the right moment to bomb North Vietnam and to deploy large numbers of U. The moment came on February 7,when NLF soldiers attacked Camp Holloway, a small airbase near the city of Pleiku, killing nine hottow2015.000webhostapp.com and woundingand destroying ten aircraft.
Johnson immediately initiated a bombing attack on four pre-selected targets in North Vietnam Operation Flaming Dartcarried out by U. A few days later, on February 13, he approved a sustained bombing campaign Operation Rolling Thunder against North Vietnam.
China, meanwhile, declared on February 15 that it would enter the war if the United States invaded North Vietnam. Stone, analyzed the White Paper in detail in his weekly newsletter. It is in this story that the White House Paper does not tell, and the popular discontent it does not mention, that the rebellion and the aid from buy narrative essay North had their origins. The attack on the U. One month before the attack, General William Westmoreland noted that the U.
A Louis Harris Poll in late February reported that 83 percent of Americans supported the bombing of North Vietnam in the wake of the Pleiku attack, but also that 75 percent favored asking for negotiations to end the war. A sizable number of newspapers, including the New York Times, were critical of the expansion of the war.
On Capitol Hill, senators began a lengthy debate on Vietnam on February On February 24, UN Secretary-General U Thant, having tried and failed to broker a peace agreement, appealed directly to the American people, suggesting that the Johnson administration had not been fully candid about its war plans and operations: I am sure the great 5s case study video people, if only they knew the true facts and background to the developments in South Vietnam, will agree with me that further bloodshed is unnecessary.
And that the political and diplomatic methods of discussions and negotiations alone can create conditions which will enable the United States to withdraw gracefully from that part of the world. As you know, in times of war and hostilities, the first casualty is truth. President Johnson and his advisers engaged in numerous and elaborate deceptions in order to keep American public opinion on their side, or at least sufficiently confused so as to not interfere with their war plans.
Added to these were continuing deceptions fostered by previous administrations concerning the Geneva Agreements, the nature of the South Vietnamese government, and the origins of the war.
To some degree, Johnson administration officials also deceived themselves, predicting that massive bombing of the north and the introduction of U. argumentative essay wordsworth anything, a larger American presence in the South importance of being a good citizen essay exacerbate the problem by making the regime seem more like a puppet than ever before….
Among Asians generally, sympathy for the Vietcong and its North Vietnamese allies would increase as they took on a very big, very white, western power, in the same way that the Vietminh before them had taken on the French. another term for thesis statement is central idea they simply ignore them, choosing to listen to more optimistic assessments? Were they fanatics at heart, like Ahab in search of Moby Dick, seeking victory at all costs?
According to insightful insiders such as James C. Thomson and Thesis topics on social media such as George McTurnan Kahin, Johnson and his top tier of advisers vacillated between wishful thinking that the next importance of being a good citizen essay would bring the desired results and fear of humiliation for both the nation and themselves as architects of the Vietnam policy.
They never flinched from importance of being a good citizen essay more death, destruction, hardship, and suffering on the Vietnamese people. This was couched in Cold War defensive rhetoric, to be sure, but thinking like an empire was not essentially rooted in the Cold War rivalry, as became apparent after the Cold War ended.
From the vantage point of advancing U. Such punishment, irrespective of political results, would serve as a visible warning to all other would-be challengers to U.
Judging by other U. Such was the case with the Dominican Republic in random college essay questions told that the 20, U.
As in Vietnam, internal developments in the Dominican Republic were touted as a threat to the United States, when in fact there was no threat whatsoever, only a desire on the part of U.
On February 26,President Johnson quietly approved a request from General William Westmoreland for two combat battalions of marines. The troops arrived at Danang on March 8 — a milestone in the expansion of the war.
The Americanization of the Vietnam War proceeded rapidly thereafter. In April, Johnson authorized U. By mid-May, the importance of being a good citizen essay of American military importance of being a good citizen essay in Vietnam had risen to 47, how do you get a job as a proofreader July, at the request of General Westmoreland, an additional 50, troops were sent, and authorization was given for U.
Johnson lied outright in declaring that the additional troops indicated no change in the U. By the end ofthere wereU. Marines arrived at Danang, March 8, Despite the added troops and firepower, the underlying political dynamics of the war remained the same.
The Saigon government was detested by most of the people, and no amount of U. Ruled out was the possibility that communists and non-communists could live in peace in Vietnam, co-existing like Catholics and Buddhists. Ruled out was the possibility that these factions could argue out their differences in the political arena rather than fight on the battlefield. The inability of U. Largely ignorant of Vietnamese history, culture, politics, and philosophical orientations, including communism, U.
The Pentagon has chosen the year to commemorate its 50th anniversary of the war, which is slated to last for thirteen years. The first involved the formation of South Vietnam in the aftermath of the Geneva Convention and U.
Phase two began with the South Vietnamese government on the brink of collapse. Following the withdrawal of all U. On January 27,with 58, Americans having died in Vietnam and nearly three-quarters of the American public favoring a complete withdrawal, a peace treaty was signed in Paris that called for all U.
The post-American War fourth phase entailed two more years of fighting before the GVN finally surrendered on April 30, Moreover, writes the international relations scholar John W. China would have spared no application letter for warehouse officer to outflank the United States by supporting insurgencies elsewhere in Southeast Asia.
It also required that the U. Neither objective was accomplished. To be clear, the U. Unable to speak the language, American soldiers attempted to identify communists and their supporters among the rural population With the introduction of U. Given the widespread animosity toward the GVN, if not outright support for the NLF, the American War quickly turned into a war against the rural population.
The targets included not only the communist-led NLF but also any person or village that offered support to NLF cadre or failed to expel them from their villages.
The idea that Americans could distinguish between communists and non-communists, and between civilians and guerrillas, in a foreign world of thatched huts, straw mats, and wooden plows was predictably illusory, with debilitating consequences.
The count typically included civilians and sometimes prisoners of war. According to the historian George C. Throughout the chain of command there was heavy pressure to produce favorable figures, and padding occurred at each level until by the time the numbers reached Washington they bore little resemblance to reality….
Many American soldiers sent to Vietnam were raised on heroic tales of World War II that reinforced their belief in the protective and liberating mission of the United States. In the Philippines, as in Vietnam, U. SomeFilipinos died as a result of that war.
Newly Added FREE Essays:
The death, destruction, and misery resulting from the U. We have to get the Indians farther away in many of the provinces to make good progress. The assumption that the U. American conduct in the Vietnam War was indeed savage in its effects.
While purporting to save Vietnam, the U. As George Herring writes: The massive bombing and artillery fire disrupted the agriculture upon which the South Vietnamese economy depended, produced huge numbers of civilian casualties, and drove millions of noncombatants into hastily constructed refugee camps or into the already overcrowded cities. American military operations further undermined the social fabric of an already fragile nation and alienated the people from a government which never had a firm base of popular support.
They were sent to fight and possibly die under false pretenses, and they were empowered with advanced weaponry and ordered to kill the enemy. Sixty-one percent of the 58, Americans who died in the war were twenty-one years of age or younger. Between 7, and 11, American women served in Vietnam, the majority being nurses. In living out the fiction that the U. Some became opponents of the war, joining the GI antiwar movement.
Most returned scarred from the war, psychologically or physically. It remained from beginning to end, an authoritarian, repressive, and corrupt client-state of the United States. It was also constantly in turmoil. To please the U. Thi was soon banished to the U. Ky was born in Hanoi and had been trained as a pilot by the French in Algeria. He was described by fiber reinforced plastic thesis Taylor as having all the qualities of a successful juvenile gang leader.
Their main demand was a return to civilian government, which they believed would be amenable to a negotiated end to the war. In Hue, nine Buddhists immolated themselves in protest and a group of youths burned down the U.
Eight days later, GVN troops invaded and took over the city. Rather than resist, Buddhist leader Thich Tri Quang went on a hunger strike that almost led to his death. Elections were held in September under repressive conditions and Thieu and Ky were respectively elected president and vice-president.
Runner-up presidential candidate, Truong Dinh Dzu, whose ballot symbol was a dove of peace, was subsequently imprisoned by Thieu along with twenty labor, religious, and political leaders who had expressed doubts about continuing the war. It is therefore not surprising that, as U. Since Americans called the shots, the thinking went, let them fight the battles. In time, however, importance of being a good citizen essay reading about the history of Vietnam, he came to a different view. This request had not come from the South Vietnamese people, it had come from the South Vietnamese government, whose existence was due solely to American support and interests.
The ARVNs, many under the age of 17, had no choice in fighting and were often sympathetic to the cause of the Viet Cong. Tran Thi Gung, a southerner who joined the NLF in at the age of seventeen, after her father had been killed by Homework wall chart Diem government, told the historian Christian Appy in an interview some forty-five years later: Whenever anyone asks me about the suffering of the war, I have a terrible nightmare that very night in which I relive these experiences.
I miss my comrades very much and often see them again in my dreams. But I never felt guilty about the killing I did. I think it was justified. But if I went to America and killed people there, I would feel very sorry and guilty. Mission in Vietnam had been reorganized three times in 15 months and each importance of being a good citizen essay had been designed primarily to improve the management of the pacification effort and raise its priority within the overall effort.
Moreover, as the war intensified, concern for the well-being of villagers diminished further. Official propaganda for the New Life Hamlet importance of being a good citizen essay listed eleven goals, including improvements in health and education and land reform, but the only one that really mattered to U.
They would have to ally with the GVN and U. About one in four South Vietnamese became a refugee between and If one does not, then perhaps his wife, or her husband, or a neighbor has a relative fighting for the National Liberation Front. They have not seen the government importance of being a good citizen essay who have been truthful to them.
Discipline was not always kept, but the NLF meryanadulen.000webhostapp.com ill-afford to alienate the local population, being dependent on villagers for food, refuge, information, and recruits.
Often, they importance of being a good citizen essay dialogue with ARVN troops in the vicinity, whether to persuade them to desert and join the NLF or to prevent them from conducting sweeps in the villages.
John Paul Vann, who retired from the Army in mid and returned to Vietnam in to become the provincial pacification director for the Agency for International Development, overseeing twelve provinces, believed that pacification programs could work. A centralized data bank was developed that identified alleged communist leaders for interrogation or elimination.
The program was modeled after counterinsurgency programs targeting the Hukbalahap in the Philippines and the Communist Party in Indonesia, in which abuses of importance of being a good citizen essay rights were legion. McNamara and its belief that statistical quantification and data management through use of computers could enable greater military efficiency, as in the corporate world. Phoenix agents used statistical indicators to measure their progress toward the goal of decapitating the NLF hierarchy.
Many were local village officials in NLF-dominated areas, which encompassed importance of being a good citizen essay of the countryside. Kalyvas and Matthew A. Kocher estimated that Phoenix victimized thirty-eight innocents for every one actual Viet Cong VC importance of being a good citizen essay.
NLF leaders were often able to evade capture by having access to safe houses and the support of a well-developed political infrastructure.
Army Center of Military History, including 22, rallied, 33, captured, and 26, killed. The intimidation factor went well beyond these numbers, which is one reason that U. These methods led to wide-scale torture. Barton Osborn, a U. Army intelligence officer, testified before a Congressional subcommittee in July what he had witnessed: The starving to death [in a cage] of a Vietnamese woman who was suspected of importance of being a good citizen essay a part of the local political education cadre in one of the local villages.
One suspect had tiny electrodes put into his brain to see if he could be programmed. Many of Phoenix operatives were recruited from religious or ethnic minorities, including Catholics and Cao Dai with deep grievances against the communists. Others were recruited from criminal gangs which had skills conducive to the clandestine arts. Some of these units set up incentive plans: Among the gadgets were radio transmission devices designed to look like household utensils and camouflaged rocks that contained hidden messages inside along with silencer pistols used in assassinations.
Prisoners endured poor facilities and overcrowding, abusive treatment, and a lack of judicial process and access to fair trial or counsel. Some of the worst abuses took place at the infamous Con Son prison, located on an archipelago kilometers off different types of essay prompts southern Vietnamese coast, where inmates reported being worked nearly to death in the fields, severely beaten by trustees, and left on the verge of starvation.
According to Phoenix operative Col. Aides in Vietnam Scorn Phoenix Project. On July 19,Phoenix program director William Colby testified before a Congressional subcommittee. He was asked by Rep. Individual members of it, subordinate people in it, may have done it.
But as a importance of being a good citizen essay, it is not designed to do that. He nevertheless acknowledged that 20, suspects had been killed under his tenure. The following day, K. Barton Osborn testified to having witnessed beatings, electrocution, dropping suspects out of helicopters, and other atrocities. The Colby and Osborn testimonies made front page news across the country.
Operation Phoenix can ultimately be seen to embody the repressive consequences of U. The Phoenix concept grew out of a larger web of literature review on e-ticketing policing operations which aimed to root out leftist and revolutionary movements said to threaten U.
American leaders calculated that costly military engagements could be avoided through carefully calibrated political policing operations designed to liquidate the revolutionary opposition.
Rather than gain territory, the aim was to wear down the enemy by inflicting high casualties beyond its capacity to continue fielding an army, e.
However, the strong nationalist consciousness in the countryside and cities of both the South and the North meant that there importance of being a good citizen essay ample replacements available to the Vietnamese resistance forces. Their strategy of resistance to both the French and the Americans was rooted in the understanding that they could outlast the outsiders who would eventually tire of a long, frustrating war. In the end, it was the United States that could not afford the casualties. Guerrilla ambushes, importance of being a good citizen essay fire, and landmines took their toll.
Secondly, search and destroy operations put U. The operations also expended a lot of military resources — ammunition, plane and vehicle fuel — for limited ends. Most importantly, these aggressive raids turned villagers against Americans, creating fertile ground for NLF recruitment. Moral concerns went deeper. Search and destroy missions resulted in significant civilian casualties. Fear dictated that cautionary and preventative measures be undertaken in order to protect American lives.
Hence, if sniper fire came from the direction of a village, or if a GI tripped a land mine, artillery would be called in to bomb the village before the soldiers entered. Often, when alien American soldiers entered a village, they would call out in broken Vietnamese for everyone to come out of their huts law and justice essay a level aqa underground shelters built for protection against American bombs.
Those who did not or tried to run would be killed by grenades or rifle fire. The village was burned to the ground and a number of civilians running away were shot. Four old men who could not answer questions put to them in English. Four old men who had no idea what an I. There is little doubt that American firepower can win a military victory here. But to a Vietnamese peasant whose home means a lifetime of backbreaking labor, it will take more than presidential promises to convince him that we are on his side.
Many Vietnamese civilians were killed or badly wounded by helicopter gunships which strafed anything that moved in areas essay on use of water for leisure hostile. Anyone taking evasive action could be fired upon. Evasive importance of being a good citizen essay was never explained to me. It normally entailed someone running or trying to evade a helicopter or any fire…. So we then hovered a few feet off the ground among them with the two helicopters, turned on the police sirens and when they heard the police sirens, they started to disperse and we opened up on them and just shot them all importance of being a good citizen essay.
Marine company on patrol, July Dropped into war zones, without knowledge of the Vietnamese language and with importance of being a good citizen essay, if any, understanding of local culture, U.
They often became frustrated when making no contact with enemy soldiers for long periods, then seemingly out of the blue were interrupted by violent surprise attacks. Daily treks through insect-filled jungles in the heat and humidity also took a toll on GI nerves. In numerous documented cases, their frustrations importance of being a good citizen essay taken out on civilians.
The approved routine of burning of huts, destruction of villages, and terrorizing of residents could and did lead to unauthorized sexual assaults, random shootings, and even massacres such as that in My Lai.
Even in villages with decent relations with local U. The more Vietnamese bodies, the more promotions, leaves, and other privileges — an invitation, if not license, to kill as many as possible. In the ensuing four-day combat, one out of every four American soldiers was killed or wounded.
Up to that point, 1, Americans had been killed. The Ia Drang mission added more. On January 21, they attacked the U. Marine base at Khe Sanh, located in northwest South Vietnam near the Laotian border, bombarding the garrison with rocket, artillery, and mortar shells for five months and 18 days. President Johnson ordered General Westmoreland to hold the base at all costs.
seiryuu-subs.000webhostapp.com was the first time that the U. Embassy in Saigon during Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive, named after the Tet holiday celebrating the lunar new year, was a major turning point in the war.
Embassy grounds came under fire. It took ten U. Prior to this offensive, Americans had been led to believe that the U. This capped the Vietnam commitment at , after which a new era of fighting began with diminishing numbers of U.
Civilian homes destroyed in Saigon in the Tet counteroffensive The Tet Offensive was immediately followed by a massive U. The Saigon government reported 14, civilians killed, 24, wounded,made homeless across South Vietnam. John Paul Vann, chief of the pacification effort in the provinces surrounding Saigon, thought the operation excessive in his region. The Hue massacre controversy The city of Hue after bombing by U. Many of the bodies had their hands bound, indicating execution. Free-lance journalist Len Ackland estimated the number at to According to the political scientist Gareth Porter: There is evidence of several hundred political executions carried out by the Communists toward the end of the occupation in Hue….
But that the more than 2, bodies found in and around Hue after Tet were victims of Communist executions is supported only by importance of being a good citizen essay assertions. In the bloody fighting to recapture Hue, in which half the homes were destroyed, thousands — civilians and Vietcong troops — were killed and buried in mass graves.
Information Agency, who blamed the civilian deaths entirely on the insurgents and warned that more massacres could be expected should South Vietnam fall to the communists.
His story was spread by U. Regardless of the actual circumstances of the civilian deaths in Hue, U. We may never know what really happened at Hue, but it is clear that mass executions did occur and that reports of the massacre there had a significant impact on South Vietnamese and American attitudes for many years after the hottow2015.000webhostapp.com Offensive.
William Calley commanding the First Platoon — treated it as a free-fire zone, killing some unarmed men, women, children, and infants. A number of women were raped as well. Not all soldiers participated in the murders; one broke down and cried; another shot animals instead.
Hugh Thompson, an Army helicopter pilot surveying the scene from above, spotted the bodies of men, women and children strewn over the landscape. Realizing that a massacre was taking place, he landed his chopper and rescued ten civilians while ordering his crew chief to shoot any American soldiers who opened fire on the civilians. On the same day, another U. These massacres were not acknowledged by military authorities at the time.
After completing his tour of duty in Aprilhe wrote letters to the Pentagon, the White House, and twenty-four members of Congress describing the atrocities of which he had been told.
Powell found no irregularities and MACV recommended that the case be closed. However, Ridenhour had collected too much evidence and the investigation continued. In the end, fourteen soldiers were charged with murder but only Lt. Haeberle testified that he personally saw about thirty different American soldiers kill about civilians, but he destroyed photographs of these killings, keeping only the end results. Meadlo confirmed that Charlie Company had rounded up and shot hundreds of men, women and children.
Marines through the village of Xuan Ngoc, including the gang-rape of an year-old girl and the slaughter of her family. Army soldiers in The My Lai massacre, however, surpassed these atrocities in scale and wickedness.
Vietnamese memorial to the civilian victims dna term paper the Pentagon assembled a secret Vietnam War Crimes Working Group that gathered more than criminal investigation reports, testimonies, and allegations of atrocities, including massacres, murders, rapes, torture, assaults, mutilations, and the execution of prisoners.
The purpose of the working group was not to administer justice but to bury the evidence in top-secret classification. It refused to investigate many of the allegations by GIs and vets in the interest of keeping the extent of atrocities under wraps. This went beyond public image making, as the generals themselves could be charged with war crimes under international law in the tradition of the Nuremberg Trials should a consistent pattern of atrocities and cover-ups be proven.
Intwo Vietnamese speaking Quakers, Diane and Michael Jones, carried out a study which found that South Korean troops had committed importance of being a good citizen essay separate massacres of or more civilians, and dozens of smaller massacres and murders. She told the AP that hundreds more civilians had been killed in raids by South Koreans around that time.
Provincial officials estimated that the South Koreans killed 1, civilians in Binh An alone, whose population in was roughly 6, Another village attacked was twelve miles from My Lai.
William Calley On March 29,Lt. William Calley was convicted on charges of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. Hawkish patriots immediately forged a importance of being a good citizen essay front of denial. Colonel in the Alabama National Guard. Calley ultimately served three and a half problem solving 3 of house arrest before being released in September I feel remorse for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their families, for the American soldiers involved and their families.
I am very sorry. Two weeks later, military intelligence reported that more than 1, North Vietnamese Army troops had moved back into the area. Thus began the gradual withdrawal of U. The shift in policy may be attributed to domestic opposition to the war — a political reality — rather than to any military strategy for winning the war or even achieving a stalemate.
According to Department of Defense statistics, U. On April 30,he ordered U. One indication of the growing reluctance of U. Gene Breeding, attempted to convince the men to comply with the order, but fifty-three still refused. Although this was officially a mutiny, no disciplinary action was taken.
Given the fact that the U. According to the U. Army Center of Military History: One of the more disturbing aspects of the unpopular war in Vietnam Curriculum vitae para docentes de secundaria the practice known as fragging.
Disenchanted soldiers in Vietnam sometimes used fragmentation grenades, popularly known as frags, or other explosives to threaten or kill officers and NCOs they disliked. The full extent of the importance of being a good citizen essay will never be known; but it increased sharply in, andwhen the morale of the troops declined in step with the American role in the fighting.
A total of well-documented cases involving 83 deaths have come to light. There were doubtless others and probably some instances of fragging that were privately motivated acts of anger that had nothing to do with the war. Nonetheless, fragging was symptomatic of an Army in turmoil. Such problems were the subject of a revealing essay by Col. Such critical thinking was necessary for reasons of essay on romeo and juliet friar lawrence conscience and legal protection.
Given the routine carnage employed in ground operations, soldiers had to be careful not to commit war crimes, as defined in U. The air war U. Then they will have to reassess their position. Indeed, the American air war produced many more casualties than the war on the ground. case study file bshs 401 to the military historian Michael Clodfelter: The United States Air Force dropped in Indochina, from to August 15,a total of 6, tons of bombs and other ordnance.
And see to it that life to such has been made sweet! Let the child, echoed Kant, be trained as a Edition: He had, of course, to be trained up in the duties he owed to a social macrocosm, but this entity was not so much a definitely conceived state—that ideal was of the past and not yet re-born—as a vaguely comprehensive humanity of independent individuals.
Nor was the community of children, nor were their claims on each other, very definitely taken into account. That also was to come. The individualism of the time saw only the Child and the Man, the nature of him overlaid by a crust of privilege, convention, and corrupt tradition. This was to be broken away; and the common nature that lay stifled beneath elicited and developed by a wholesome culture that should be all-powerful to redeem and reform.
So would the moral sense innate in him sprout and burgeon, till the dignity of Man in the blossom of the Youth should stand confessed and vindicated.
Such and much more was in the air when these lecture-notes were written. And its Conjunktur had brought forth the man. Comenius and Locke, over and under a century earlier, had been fashioning him. Educational innovations were tried; educational reformers were maturing. The Philanthropist schools were founded in Germany in and afterKant taking a lively interest in the parent Philanthropin at Dessau.
Bahrdt, Basedow, Campe, were avowed Rousseauists. Pestalozzi was preparing his aphorisms. Oberlin, Herder, Lessing, were in their prime; Olivier yet a youth. Herbart was in the nursery; Fichte and Froebel in the cradle. If these slight suggestions be worked out, the reader of these Thoughts on Education will get a more lifelike background to them than if he held in his importance of being a good citizen essay the defunct text-book on which Kant embroidered his lectures.
Rousseau far more than Bock—the importance of being a good citizen essay and not the pedant—is the real inspirer, I do not say of Edition: This is patent throughout. Bock, as I have said, is never quoted. Rousseau, on the other hand, appears throughout, explicit and implicit, though the tender insight of the father is replaced by the relatively rigid and crude standpoints of one who had never gone in and out among infants of his own.
To the ideal of liberty Kant attained by a road peculiar to his own philosophy. They bear the impress of these conditions. Both dogmatic and inductive, like his critical philosophy, they show also a standpoint which is characteristic of an age that was passing, and yet affords glimpses into the future.
Sophie was not an individual, an integer, a potential equal among equals; she was an adjunct. It is true that the question of intellectual development for her, in so far as it was raised by Rousseau, made its impression upon Kant.
And possibly his tutorial experience may have given him glimpses of the needs and capacities of girls for more adequate cultivation. Nevertheless the indefinite sex of his child becomes solely masculine when its more advanced training is discussed. So the Woman bode her time. Thus far for peruke and powder. But Kant is too great to be merely historically interesting. There is much in these lecture-notes worthy to be considered by educators for many a generation to come. Now and again the importance of being a good citizen essay of the writer is on the pulse of the future.
Always he is earnest, wise, and sane. Broadly divided, education for Kant is either physical or moral, is either cultivation or moralisation of the individual. In the former what the child is capable of knowing and performing is elicited and practised. Then he does good because it is good, and not from specific motives. This is the coming of age of the moralisation of the individual. Moral conduct entails a fresh fiat of the practical reason every time the individual is confronted by the need of moral choice.
If the child infringe the importance of being a good citizen essay law, the teacher must resent it as an offence against one or more individuals as moral. For Kant, then, the problem of education resolved itself into that of Indeterminism—how to constrain the child without enslaving his moral freedom; how August 2016 us history regents thematic essay compel the will, while fitting it to use its liberty.
And it is not a goal to be attained by a few elect individuals. Academic aristocracy is waved aside by his all-embracing faith: But it is impressive to find the old man not only demanding much of human character, but believing to the last in his dictum: Du kannst denn du sollst. It is worth while noticing that both Kant and Rousseau, at least implicitly, teach that the proximate ideal best conducing towards that ultimate end is not citizenship, nor fraternity, but fatherhood. And there is nothing wanting in the emphasis laid on the Edition: What, truly, would be left of the hiding place essay of our painful social problems were all parents always at their best and wisest in intercourse with their children?
And who shall say whether we may not come to see progress in concentrating the goal of boyhood in proportion as we expand that of girlhood? Finally, Curriculum vitae s ownik aci ski to those who should educate the fathers of the coming generation, Kant has left a word pregnant with the future far more than he himself was aware, and going far beyond the educational range of the time.
And for the general English reader, in whose eyes Kant still counts, most inaccurately, as a mainly speculative thinker, it should Edition: Theodor Vogt Langensalza, second edition, I should like to take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to Dr.
Winternitz of Oxford for his kindness in revising the MS. Rhys Davids for many valuable suggestions. Man is the only being who needs education.
For by education we must understand nurture the tending and feeding of the childdiscipline Zuchtand teaching, together with culture. Animals use their powers, as soon as they are possessed of them, according to a regular plan—that is, in a way not harmful to themselves.
Animals therefore need no nurture, but at the most, food, warmth, and guidance, or a kind of protection. It is true, most animals need feeding, but they do not require nurture. For by nurture we mean the tender care and attention which parents must bestow upon their children, so as to prevent them from using their powers in a way which would be harmful to themselves. For instance, should an animal cry when it comes into the world, as children do, it would surely become a prey to wolves and other wild animals, which would gather round, attracted by its cry.
Discipline changes animal nature into human nature. Animals are by their instinct all that they ever can be; some other reason has provided everything for them at the outset. But man needs a reason of his own. Having no instinct, he has to work out a plan of conduct for himself. Since, however, he is not able to do this all at once, but comes into the world undeveloped, others have to do it for him. Discipline is merely negative 4. All the natural endowments of mankind Edition: One generation educates the next.
The first beginnings of this process of educating may be looked for either in a rude and unformed, or in a fully developed condition of man.
If we assume the latter to have come first, man must at all events afterwards have degenerated and lapsed into barbarism. It is discipline, which prevents man from being turned aside by his animal impulses from humanity, his appointed end. Discipline, for instance, must restrain him from venturing wildly and rashly into danger. The positive part of education is instruction. Unruliness consists good thesis for macbeth independence of law.
By discipline men are placed in subjection to the laws of mankind, and brought to feel their constraint. This, however, must be accomplished early.
Children, for instance, are first sent to school, not so much with the object of their learning something, but rather that they may become used to sitting still and doing exactly as they are told.
And this to orbisprestetaire.000webhostapp.com discipline must be brought into play very early; for when this has not been done, it is difficult to alter importance of being a good citizen essay later in life.
Undisciplined men are apt to follow every caprice. We see this also among savage nations, who, though they may discharge functions for some time like Europeans, yet can never become accustomed to European manners. With them, however, it is not the Jamnagar ayurveda thesis love of freedom which Rousseau and others imagine, but a importance of being a good citizen essay of barbarism—the animal, so to speak, not having yet developed its human nature.
Men should therefore accustom themselves early to yield to the commands of reason, for if a man be allowed to follow his own will in his youth, without opposition, a certain tourcrms.000webhostapp.com will cling to him throughout his life. And it is no advantage to such a man that in his youth he has been spared through an over-abundance of Edition: It is a common mistake made in the education of those of high rank, that because they are hereafter to become rulers they must on that account receive no opposition in their youth.
Owing to his natural love of freedom it is necessary that man should have his importance of being a good citizen essay roughness smoothed down; with animals, their instinct renders this unnecessary. Man needs nurture and culture. Culture includes discipline and instruction. These, as far as we know, no animal needs, for none of them learn anything from their elders, except birds, who are taught by them to sing; and it is a touching sight to watch the mother bird singing with all her might to her young ones, who, importance of being a good citizen essay children at school, stand round and try to produce the same tones out of their tiny throats.
In order to convince ourselves that birds do not sing by instinct, but that they are actually taught to sing, it is worth while to make an experiment. It is, indeed, very wonderful that each species of bird has its own peculiar song, which is preserved unchanged through all its generations; and the tradition of the song is probably the most faithful in the world.
Man can only become man by education. He is merely what education makes of him. It is noticeable that man is only educated by man—that is, by men who have themselves been educated. Hence importance of being a good citizen essay some people it is want of discipline and instruction on their own part, which makes them in turn unfit educators of their pupils.
Were some being of higher nature than man to undertake our education, we should then be able to see what man might become. Were it possible, by the help of those in high rank, and through the united forces of many people, to Edition: But it is as important to the speculative mind, as it is sad to one who loves his fellow-men, to see how those in high rank generally care only for their own concerns, and take no part in the important experiments of education, which bring our nature one step nearer to perfection.
There is no one who, having been neglected in his youth, can come to years of discretion without knowing whether the defect lies in discipline or culture for so we may call instruction.
The uncultivated man is crude, the undisciplined is unruly. Neglect of discipline is a greater evil than neglect of culture, for this last can be remedied later in life, but unruliness cannot be done away with, and a mistake in discipline can never be repaired. It may be that education will be constantly improved, and that each succeeding generation will advance one step towards the perfecting of mankind; for with education is involved the great secret of the perfection of human nature.
It is only now that something may be done in this importance of being a good citizen essay, since Edition: It is delightful to realise that through education human nature will be continually improved, and brought to such a condition as is worthy of the nature of man. This opens out to us the prospect of a happier human race in the future. The theory of education is a glorious ideal; none the less worthy of our aim because it has not yet been realised 8. The prospect of a theory of education is a glorious ideal, and it matters little if we are not able to realise it at once.
Only we must not look upon the idea as chimerical, nor decry it as a beautiful dream, notwithstanding the difficulties that stand in the way Conclusion in dissertation its realisation.
An idea is nothing else than the conception of a perfection which has not yet been experienced. For instance, the idea of a perfect republic governed by principles of justice—is such an idea impossible, because it has not yet been experienced? Our idea must in the first place be correct, and then, notwithstanding all the hindrances that still stand in the way of its realisation, it mag je in een essay ik gebruiken not at all impossible.
Suppose, for instance, lying to become universal, would truth-speaking on that account become nothing but a whim? This plan of an adequate education may be gradually realised 9.
Under the present educational system man does not fully attain to the object of his being; for in what various ways men live! Uniformity can only result when all men act according to the same principles, which principles would have to become with them a second nature.
What we can do is to work out a scheme of education better suited to further its objects, and hand down to posterity directions as to how this scheme may be carried into practice, so that they might be able to realise it gradually. Take the auricula as an example. When raised from a root this plant bears flowers of one colour only; when raised from seed, the flowers are of the most varied colours.
Nature has placed these manifold germs in the plant, and their development is only a question of proper sowing and planting. Thus it is with man. There are many germs lying undeveloped in man. It is for us to make these germs grow, by developing his natural gifts in their due proportion, and to see that he fulfils his destiny.
Animals accomplish this for themselves Edition: Man must strive to attain it, but this he cannot do if he has not even a conception as to the object of his existence. For the individual it is absolutely impossible to attain this importance of being a good citizen essay. Let us suppose the first parents to have been fully developed, and see how they educate their children. These first parents set their children an example, which the children imitate and in this way develop some of their own natural gifts.
All their gifts cannot, however, be developed in this way, for it all depends on occasional circumstances what examples children see. In times past men had no conception of the perfection to which human nature might attain—even now we have not a very clear idea of the matter.
This much, however, is certain: To succeed in this, not the work of a few individuals only is necessary, but that of the whole human race. Since such development can only be brought about gradually in the course of generations, education is an art Education is an art which can only become perfect through the practice of many generations. Each generation, provided with the knowledge of the foregoing one, is able more Edition: Providence has willed, that man shall bring forth for himself the good that lies hidden in his nature, and has spoken, as it were, thus to man.
I have equipped thee with every tendency towards the good. Thy part let it be to develop those tendencies. Thy importance of being a good citizen essay and unhappiness depend upon thyself alone. Man must copy editor jobs his tendency towards the good. Providence has not placed goodness ready formed in him, but merely as a tendency and without the distinction of moral law.
Upon reflection we shall case study law of contract this very difficult. Hence the greatest and most difficult problem to which man can devote himself is the problem of education.
For insight depends on education, and education in its turn depends on insight. It follows therefore that education can only advance by Edition: What vast culture and experience does not this conception presuppose?
It could only be arrived at at a late stage, and we ourselves have not fully realised this conception. The question arises, Should we in the education of the individual imitate the course followed by the education of the human race through its successive generations? There are two human inventions which may be considered more difficult than any others—the art of government, and the art of education; and people still contend as to their very meaning.
The development is more conceivable in an already civilised state of society But in developing human talents where are we to take our stand? Shall we begin with a rude, or with an already developed state of society? It is difficult to conceive a development from a state of rudeness hence it is so difficult to understand what the first man was likeand we see that in a development out of such a condition Edition: In the earliest records of even very civilised nations we still find a distinct taint of barbarism, and yet how much culture is presupposed for mere writing to be possible!
So much so that, with regard to civilised people, the beginning of the art of writing might be called the beginning of the world.
The origin and the carrying out of the art of education must not be merely mechanical; they must involve the exercise of judgment Nature has placed no instinct in him for that purpose. The origin as well as the carrying out of this art is either mechanical and without plan, ruled by given circumstances, or it involves the exercise of judgment.
The art of education is only then mechanical, when on chance occasions we learn by experience whether anything is useful or harmful to man. All education which is merely mechanical must carry with it many mistakes and deficiencies, because it has no sure principle to work upon.
If education is to develop human nature so that it may attain the object of its being, it must involve the exercise of judgment. Educated parents are examples which children use for their Edition: If, however, the children are to progress beyond their parents, education must become a study, otherwise we can hope for nothing from it, and one man get someone to write your essay education has been spoilt will only repeat his own mistakes in trying to educate others.
The mechanism of education must be changed into a science, 1 and one generation may have to pull down what another had built up.
One principle of education which those men especially who form educational schemes should keep before their eyes is this—children ought to be educated, not for the present, but for a possibly improved condition of man in the future; that is, in a manner which is adapted to the idea of humanity and the whole destiny of man. This principle is of great importance.
Parents usually educate their children merely in such a manner that, however bad the world may be, they may adapt themselves to its present conditions. But they ought to give them an education so much better than this, that a better condition of things may thereby be brought about in the future. Here, however, we are met by two difficulties— a parents usually only care that their children make their way in the world, and b Sovereigns look upon their graduation project literature review merely as tools for their own purposes.
Parents care for the home, rulers for the state. Neither have as their aim the universal good and the perfection to which man is destined, and for which he has also a natural disposition. But the basis of a scheme of education must be cosmopolitan. And is, then, the idea of the universal good harmful to us as individuals? The basis of education should be essay format 6th grade Never!
And then what glorious consequences follow!
Good citizen is country developer. Good citizen programs their daily life activities for the benefits of other. Good citizens can share their experiences and knowledge with new generation.
It is through good education that all the good in the world arises. For this the germs 4 year old 911 call homework help of evil are not to be found in the natural disposition of man.
Evil is only the result of nature not being brought under control. In man there are only germs of good. We must approach this goal chiefly through the efforts of private individuals But by whom is the better condition of Edition: By rulers or by their subjects? Is it by the latter, who shall so improve themselves that they meet half-way the measures for their good which the government might establish? Were it to depend upon rulers, their own education will first have to be improved, for this has for a long time suffered, owing to the importance of being a good citizen essay mistake that they have been allowed to meet with no opposition in their youth.
A tree which stands in a field alone grows crooked and spreads wide its branches; while a tree which stands in the middle of a forest, with the pressure of other trees around, bp oil spill college essay tall and straight, seeking air and sunshine from above.
It is the same with rulers. In any case it is always better that they should be educated by some one among their subjects, rather than by one of themselves. We can therefore only expect progress to be brought about by rulers if their education has been of a higher kind than that of their subjects. It depends, then, mainly upon private effort, and not so much on the importance of being a good citizen essay of rulers, as Basedow and others supposed; for we find by experience that they have not the universal Edition: If, however, they provide funds for this object, the drawing up of the scheme must be deferred to them.
Influence and money alone cannot do it; they can only essay on a funniest dream i had the task. They might do it, if only the financial authorities of the state were not so anxious to calculate beforehand the interests which any sums spent for this purpose might bear for the treasury. Even academic bodies hitherto have not undertaken the task, and the importance of being a good citizen essay that they will do so in the future is now as small as ever.
The management of schools ought, then, to depend entirely upon the judgment of the most enlightened experts. All culture begins with the individual, one man gradually influencing others.
It is only through the efforts of people of broader views, who take an importance of being a good citizen essay in the universal good, and who are capable of entertaining the idea of a better condition of things in the future, that the gradual progress of human city college of new york creative writing mfa towards its goal is possible. If he considers the subject of training the intellect at all, it is merely in order that his people may be of more use to him in working out his own ends.
It is, of course, necessary for private individuals to keep this natural end in view, but they must also bear in mind more particularly the development of mankind, and see to it that men become not only clever, but good; and, what is most difficult, they must seek to bring posterity nearer to a state of perfection than they have themselves attained. Education includes 1 Discipline 2 Culture 3 Discretion 4 Moral training Through education, then, man must be made— First, subject to discipline; by which we must understand that influence which is always restraining our animal nature from getting the better of our manhood, either in the individual as such, or in man as a member of society.
Discipline, then, is merely restraining unruliness. Secondly, education must also supply men importance of being a good citizen essay culture. This includes information and Edition: It is importance of being a good citizen essay which brings out ability. Ability is the possession aliknews.000webhostapp.com a faculty which is capable of being adapted to various ends.
Ability, therefore, does not determine any ends, but leaves that to circumstances as they arise afterwards. Some accomplishments are essentially importance of being a good citizen essay for everybody—reading and writing, for instance; others, merely in the pursuit of certain objects, such as music, Presidential scholar essay questions we pursue in order to make ourselves liked.
Indeed, the various purposes to which ability may be put are almost endless. Thirdly, education must also supply a person with discretion Klugheitso that he may be able to conduct himself in society, that he may be liked, expository essay on gay marriage that he may gain influence.
For this a kind of culture is necessary which we call refinement Civilisierung. The latter requires manners, custom business plan writers and a kind of discretion which will enable him to use all men for his own ends.
This refinement changes according to the ever-changing tastes of different ages. Thus some twenty or thirty years ago ceremonies in social intercourse were still the fashion. It is not enough that a man shall be fitted for any end, but his importance of being a good citizen essay must be so trained that he shall choose none but good ends—good ends being those which are necessarily approved by everyone, and which may at the same time be the aim of everyone.
Moral training is still too much neglected Man may be either broken in, trained, and mechanically taught, or he may be really enlightened. Horses and dogs are broken in; and man, too, may be broken in. It is, however, hottow2015.000webhostapp.com enough that children should be merely broken in; for it is of greater importance that they shall learn to think. By learning to think, man comes to act according to fixed principles and not at random.
Thus we see that a real education implies a great deal. But as a rule, in our private education the fourth and most important point is still too much neglected, children being for the most part educated in such a way that moral training is left to the Church.
And yet how important it is that children should learn from their youth up to detest vice;—not merely on the ground that God has forbidden it, but because vice is detestable robin pesch dissertation If children do not learn this early, they are very likely to think that, if only God had not forbidden it, there would be no harm in practising wickedness, and that it would otherwise be allowed, and that therefore He would probably make an exception now and then.
But God is the introduction in research paper ppt holy being, and wills only what is good, and desires that we may love virtue for its own sake, and not merely because He requires it. We live in an age of discipline, culture, and refinement, but we are still a long way off from the age of moral training.
According to the present conditions of mankind, one might say that the prosperity of the state grows side by side with the misery of the people.
Indeed, it is still a Courses in creative writing in bangalore made wise and good?
And until this is made our first aim the amount of evil will not be lessened. The need of experimental schools Experimental schools must first be established before we can establish normal schools. In Austria the greater number of schools used to be normal schools, and these were founded and carried on after a fixed plan, against which much has been said, not without reason.
The chief complaint against them was this, that the teaching in them was merely mechanical. But all other schools were obliged to form themselves after the pattern of these normal schools, because government even refused to promote persons who had not been educated in these schools.
This is an example hottow2015.000webhostapp.com how government might interfere in the education of subjects, and how much evil might arise from compulsion. People imagine, indeed, that experiments in education are unnecessary, and that we can judge from our reason whether anything is good or not. This is a great mistake, and experience teaches us that the results of an experiment are often entirely different from what we expected.
Thus we see that, since we must be guided Edition: The only experimental school which had in a measure made a beginning to clear the way was the Dessau Institute. This importance of being a good citizen essay be said in its praise, in spite of the many literature review ascorbic acid with which we might reproach it—mistakes which attend all conclusions made from experiments—namely, that still more experiments are required.
This school was in a certain way the only one in which the teachers were free to importance of being a good citizen essay out their own methods and plans, and in which the teachers were in communication with each other and with all the learned men of Germany. Education includes the nurture of the child and, as it grows, its culture. The latter is firstly negative, consisting of discipline; that is, merely the correcting of faults.
Secondly, culture is positive, consisting of instruction and guidance and thus forming part of education. Guidance means directing the pupil in putting into practice what he has been taught. Hence the difference between a private teacher who merely instructs, and a tutor or governor who Edition: The one trains for school only, the other for life. Education is either private or public Education is either private or public. The latter is concerned only with instruction, and this can always remain public.
The carrying out of what is taught critical thinking activities for esl students aim is to promote a good private education.
A importance of being a good citizen essay which does this is called an educational institute. There cannot be many such institutions, and the number of children in them can be but importance of being a good citizen essay, since the fees must of necessity be high, for the institutions require pneusprata.000webhostapp.com importance of being a good citizen essay, which entails a good deal of expense.
It is the same as with almshouses and hospitals. The buildings required for them, and the salaries of directors, overseers, and servants, take away at once half of the funds, so that there can be no doubt that the poor would be better provided for, if all that money importance of being a good citizen essay sent direct to their houses.
For this reason it is also difficult to provide that any but the children of rich people should share in these institutions. The aim of public education is the perfecting of home education The object of such public institutions as these is the improvement of home education. The purpose of these institutions is to make experiments, and to educate individuals, so that in importance of being a good citizen essay a good private education may arise out of these public institutions.
Home education and its chief difficulty Home education is carried on either by the parents themselves, or, should the parents not have the time, aptitude, or inclination for it, by others who are paid to assist them in it.
But in importance of being a good citizen essay which is carried on by these assistants one very great difficulty arises—namely, the division of authority between parent and teacher.
The only way out of this difficulty is for the parents to surrender the whole of their authority to the tutor. Public education is, on the whole, the best Regarded not only from the importance of being a good citizen essay of view of developing ability, but also as a preparation for the duties of a citizen, it must, I am inclined to think, be allowed that, on the whole, public Edition: Home education frequently not only fosters family failings, but tends to continue these failings in the new generation.
Haiti earthquake photo essay should continue importance of being a good citizen essay about the sixteenth year How long, then, should education last? Till the youth has reached that period of his life when nature has ordained that he shall be capable of guiding his own conduct; when the instinct of sex has developed in him, and he can become a importance of being a good citizen essay himself, and have to educate his own children.
This period is generally reached about the sixteenth year. After this we may still make use of some means of culture, and secretly exercise some discipline; but of education in the ordinary sense of the word we shall have no further importance of being a good citizen essay.
In the first period of childhood the child must learn submission and positive 1 obedience. In the next stage he should be allowed to think for himself, and to enjoy a certain amount of freedom, although still obliged to follow certain rules.
In the first period there is essay questions for 9/11 mechanical, in the second a moral constraint.
Submission is either positive or negative Positive in that he is obliged to do Edition: He is in this case, though capable of thinking for himself, dependent on others with regard to his own pleasure. In the development of moral constraint it is necessary to unite submission with the exercise of freewill by the child How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?
I am to accustom my pupil to endure a importance of being a good citizen essay of his freedom, and at the same time I am to guide him to use his freedom aright. Without this all education is merely mechanical, and the child, when his education is over, will never be able to make a proper use of his freedom. He should be made to feel early the inevitable Edition: The child should be allowed perfect liberty, while at the same time he must be taught to respect the liberty of others, and submit himself to a restraint which will lead to a right use of future liberty Here we must observe the following: For instance, as soon as he screams or is too boisterously happy, he annoys others.
Secondly, he must be shown that he can only attain his own ends by allowing others to attain theirs. For instance, should he be disobedient, or importance of being a good citizen essay to learn his lessons, he ought to be refused any treat he may have been looking forward to.
Thirdly, we must prove to him that restraint is only laid upon him that he may learn in time to use his liberty aright, and that Ocr as biology coursework help the help of others.
This is the last thing a child will come to understand. It is much later in life that Edition: Indeed, unless children, and especially the children of rich parents and princes, are made to realise this, they are like the inhabitants of Otaheiti, who remain children all their lives.
The wholesome competition of school life Again, we see the advantage of public education in that under such a system, we learn to measure our powers with those of others, and to importance of being a good citizen essay the limits imposed upon us by the rights of others.
Thus we can have no preference shown us, because we meet with opposition everywhere, and we can only make our mark and obtain an advantage over others by real merit. For example, in a democracy, citizens are paid to serve on juries, importance of being a good citizen essay in an oligarchy, rich people are fined if they do not.
In a polity, both of these approaches are used, with the poor being paid to serve and the rich fined for not serving. In this way, both groups will serve on juries and power will be shared. There are several ways to mix oligarchy and democracy, but “The defining principle of a good mixture of democracy and oligarchy is that it should be possible for the same polity to be spoken of as either a democracy or an oligarchy” b The regime must be said to be both – and neither — a democracy and an oligarchy, and it will be preserved “because none of the parts of the city generally would wish to have another regime” b The Importance of the Middle Class In addition to combining elements from the institutions of democracy and oligarchy, the person wishing to create a lasting polity must pay attention to the economic situation in the city.
For example, a soldier who flees before a battle is guilty of the vice of cowardice, while one who charges the enemy singlehandedly, breaking ranks and getting himself killed for no reason, is guilty of the vice of foolhardiness. The soldier who practices the virtue of courage is the one who faces the enemy, moves forward with the rest of the troops in good order, and fights bravely.
Courage, then, is a mean between the extremes of cowardice and foolhardiness. The person who has it neither flees from the enemy nor engages in a suicidal and pointless attack but faces the enemy bravely and attacks in the right way. Aristotle draws a parallel between virtue in individuals and virtue in cities.
The city, he says, has three parts: Today we would probably believe that it is the rich people who are the most fortunate of those three groups, but this is not Aristotle’s position. For [a man of moderate wealth] is readiest to obey reason, while for one who is [very wealthy or very poor] it is difficult to follow reason.
The former sort tend to become arrogant and base on a grand scale, the latter malicious and base in petty ways; and acts of injustice are committed either through arrogance or through malice” b4. A political community that has extremes of wealth and poverty “is a city not of free bekirkupeli.000webhostapp.com but of slaves and masters, the ones consumed by envy, the others by contempt.
Nothing is further removed from affection and from a importance of being a good citizen essay partnership” b People in the middle class are free from the arrogance that characterizes the rich and the envy that characterizes the poor.
And, since members of this class are similar and equal in wealth, they are likely to regard one another as similar and equal generally, and to be willing to rule and be ruled in turn, neither demanding pay for essay writing rule at all times as the wealthy do or trying to avoid ruling as the poor do from their lack of resources.
For tyranny arises from the most headstrong sort of democracy and from oligarchy, but much less often from the middling sorts [of regime] and those close to them” b There can be an enduring importance of being a good citizen essay only when the middle class is able either to rule on its own or in conjunction with either of the other two groups, for in this way it can moderate their excesses: Unfortunately, Aristotle says, this state of affairs almost never exists.
Instead, whichever group, rich or poor, is able to achieve power conducts affairs to suit itself rather than considering the interests of the other group: And as a result, neither group seeks equality but instead each tries to dominate the other, believing that it is the only way to avoid being dominated in turn. This is a recipe for instability, conflict, and ultimately civil war, rather than a lasting regime.
For the polity or any other regime to last, “the part of the city that wants the regime to continue must be superior to the part not wanting this” in quality and quantity b He repeats this in Book V, calling it the “great principle”: The remainder of Book IV focuses hottow2015.000webhostapp.com the kinds of authority and offices in the city and how these can be distributed in democratic or oligarchic fashion.
We do not need to concern animal trainer essay it does show that Aristotle is concerned with particular kinds of flawed regimes and how they can best operate and function in addition to his interest in the best practical government and the best government generally.
The Politics, Book V a. Conflict between the Rich and the Poor In Book V Aristotle turns his attention to how regimes can be preserved and how they are destroyed. Since we have seen what kind of regime a polity is, and how it can be made to endure, we are already in a position to see what is wrong with regimes which do not adopt the principles of a polity.
We have already seen the claims of the few rich and the many poor to rule. The importance of being a good citizen essay believe that because they are greater in material wealth they should also be greater in political power, while the latter claim that because all citizens are equally free political power should also be equally distributed, which allows the many poor to rule because of their superior numbers.
Both groups are partially correct, but neither is entirely correct, “And it is for this reason that, when either [group] does not share in the regime on the basis of the conception it happens to Introduction for case study paper they engage in factional conflict” which can lead to civil war a While the virtuous also have a claim to rule, the very fact that they are virtuous leads them to avoid factional conflict.
They are also too small a group to be politically consequential: Therefore, the conflict that matters is the one between the rich and poor, and as we have seen, whichever importance of being a good citizen essay gets the upper importance of being a good citizen essay will arrange things for its own benefit and in order to harm the importance of being a good citizen essay group.
The fact that each of these groups ignores the common good and seeks only its own interest is why both oligarchy and democracy are flawed regimes. It is also ultimately self-destructive to try to put either kind of regime into practice: This is evident from the result: On the importance of being a good citizen essay hand, “[O]ne should not consider as importance of being a good citizen essay of popular rule or of oligarchy something tha t will make the city democratically or oligarchically run to the greatest importance of being a good citizen essay possible, but something that will do so for the longest period of time” a1.
Democracy tends to be more stable than oligarchy, because democracies only have a conflict between rich and poor, while oligarchies also have conflicts within the ruling group of oligarchs to hold power.
In addition, democracy is closer to polity than oligarchy is, and this contributes to its greater stability. And this is an important goal; douglas mcgregor theory x and theory y essay more importance of being a good citizen essay a regime is, the longer it is likely to remain in place.
Why does factional conflict arise? Aristotle turns to this question in Chapter 2. What are the things in which the lesser seek to be equal and the equal to be greater? They are stirred up further by arrogance, by fear, by preeminence, by contempt, by disproportionate growth, by electioneering, by underestimation, by [neglect of] small things, and by dissimilarity” a Aristotle describes each of these in more importance of being a good citizen essay.
We will not examine them closely, but it is worth observing that Aristotle regards campaigning for office as a potentially dangerous source of conflict. If the city is arranged in such a way that either of the major factions feels that it is being wronged by the other, there are many things that can trigger conflict and even civil war; the regime is inherently unstable.
We discuss essay writing and its structure the groups in the city wish to see continue. Aristotle says of democracies that “[D]emocracies undergo revolution particularly on account of the wanton behavior of the popular leaders” b Such leaders will harass the property owners, causing them to unify against the democracy, and they importance of being a good citizen essay also stir up the poor against the rich in order to maintain themselves in power.
This leads to conflict between the two groups and civil war. Aristotle cites a number of historical examples of this. Oligarchies undergo revolution primarily “when they treat the multitude unjustly. Any leader is then adequate [to effect revolution]” a Revolution in oligarchical regimes can also come about from competition within the oligarchy, when not all of the oligarchs have a share in the offices.
In this case those without power will engage in revolution not to change the regime but to change those who are ruling. How to Preserve Regimes However, despite all the dangers to the regimes, and the unavoidable risk that any particular regime will be overthrown, Aristotle does have advice regarding the preservation of regimes.
In part, of course, we learn how to importance of being a good citizen essay the regimes by learning what causes revolutions and then avoiding those causes, so Aristotle has already given us useful advice for the preservation of regimes. But he has more advice to offer: Note, again, the importance of letting the laws rule. It is also important in every regime “to have the laws and management of the rest arranged in research paper about exercise a way that it is impossible to profit from the offices….
The many do not chafe as much at being kept away from ruling – they are even glad if someone leaves them the leisure for their private affairs — as they do when they suppose that their rulers are stealing common [funds]; then it pains them both not to share in the prerogatives and not to share in the profits” b And, again, it is beneficial if the group that does not have political power is allowed to share in it to the greatest extent possible, though it should not be allowed to hold the authoritative offices such as general, treasurer, and so forth.
Such men must be chosen extremely carefully: It is difficult to find all three of these in many men, but it is important for the regime to make use of the men importance of being a good citizen essay these qualities to the greatest degree possible, or else the regime will be harmed, either by sedition, incompetence, or importance of being a good citizen essay.
Aristotle also reminds us of the importance of the middling element for maintaining the regime and making it long-lasting; instead of hostility between the oligarchs and democrats, whichever group has power should be certain always to behave benevolently and justly to the other group b For there is no benefit in the most beneficial laws, even when these have been approved by all those engaging in politics, if they are not going to be habituated and educated in the regime — if the laws are popular, in a popular spirit, if oligarchic, in an oligarchic spirit” a This does not mean that the people living in a democracy should be educated to believe that oligarchs are enemies of the importance of being a good citizen essay, to be oppressed as much as possible and treated unjustly, nor does it mean that the wealthy under an oligarchy should be educated to believe that the poor are to be treated with arrogance and contempt.
Instead it means being educated in the principles of moderate democracy and moderate oligarchy, so that the regime will be long-lasting and avoid revolution. In the remainder of Book V Aristotle discusses monarchy and tyranny and what preserves and destroys these types of regimes. Here Aristotle is not discussing the kind of monarchies with which most people today are familiar, involving hereditary descent of royal power, usually from father to son.
A monarch in Aristotle’s sense is one who rules because he is superior to all other citizens in virtue. Monarchy therefore involves individual rule on the basis of merit for the good of the whole city, and the monarch because of his virtue is uniquely well qualified to determine what that means. The tyrant, on the other hand, rules solely for his own benefit and pleasure. Monarchy, therefore, involving the rule of the best man over all, is the best kind of importance of being a good citizen essay, while tyranny, which is essentially the rule of a master over a regime in which all are slaves, is the worst kind of regime, and in fact is really no kind of regime at all.
Aristotle lists the particular ways in which both monarchy and tyranny are changed and preserved. We do not need to spend much time on these, for Aristotle says that in his time “there are many persons who are similar, with none of them so outstanding as to match the extent and the claim to merit of the office” that would be required for the rule of one man on the basis of exceptional virtue that characterizes monarchy a5and tyranny is inherently extremely short lived and clearly without value.
However, those wishing to importance of being a good citizen essay either of these kinds of regimes are advised, as oligarchs and democrats have been, to pursue moderation, diminishing the degree of their power in order to extend its duration. The Politics, Book VI a.
Varieties of Democracy Most of Book VI is concerned with the varieties of democracy, although Aristotle also revisits the varieties of importance of being a good citizen essay.
Some of this discussion has to do with the various ways in which the offices, laws, and duties can be arranged. This importance of being a good citizen essay of the importance of being a good citizen essay we will pass over. However, Aristotle also includes a importance of being a good citizen essay of the animating importance of being a good citizen essay of democracy, which is freedom: In modern liberal democracies, of course, the ability of all to share in freedom and for each citizen to live as one wants is considered one of the regime’s strengths.
However, keep in mind that Aristotle believes that human life has a telos and that the political community should provide education and laws that will lead to people pursuing and achieving this telos. Given that this is the case, a regime that allows people to do whatever they want is in fact flawed, for it is not guiding them in the direction of the good life.
The Best Kind of Democracy He also explains which of the varieties of democracy is the best. In Chapter 4, we discover that the best sort of democracy is the one made up of farmers: For on account of not having much property it is lacking in leisure, and grade 6 critical thinking questions is unable to hold frequent assemblies.
Because they do not have the necessary things, they spend their time at work and do not desire the things of others; indeed, working is more pleasant to them than engaging in politics and ruling, where there are not great spoils to be gotten from office” b9.
This is a reason why the authoritative offices can be in the hands of the wealthy, as long as the people retain control of auditing and adjudication: The offices will always be in the hands of the best persons, the people being willing and not envious of the respectable, while the arrangement is satisfactory for the respectable and notable.
These will not be ruled by others who are their inferiors, and they will rule justly by the fact that others have authority over the audits” b By “adjudication” Aristotle means that the many should be certain that juries should be made up of men from their ranks, so that the laws will be enforced with a democratic spirit and the rich will not be able to use their wealth to put themselves above the law.
By “authority over the audits” Aristotle refers to an institution which provided that those who held office had to provide an accounting of their activities at regular intervals: They were liable to prosecution if they were found to have engaged in wrongdoing or mismanagement, and electronica-fernandez.000webhostapp.com fear of this prosecution, Aristotle says, will keep them honest and ensure that they act according to the wishes of the democracy.
So we see again that the institutions and laws of a city are important, but equally important is the moral character of the citizens.
It is only the character of the farming population that makes the arrangements Aristotle describes possible: And importance of being a good citizen essay Aristotle does not say it here, of course a regime organized in this way, giving a share of power to the wealthy and to the importance of being a good citizen essay, under the rule of law, in the interest of everyone, importance of being a good citizen essay in fact be a polity more than it would be a democracy.
The Role of Wealth in a Democracy In Chapter 5 of Book VI he offers further advice that would move the city in the direction of polity when he discusses how wealth should be handled in a democracy. Many democracies offer pay for serving in the assembly or on juries so that the poor will be able to attend. Aristotle advises minimizing the number of trials and length of service on juries so that the cost will not be too much of a burden on the wealthy where there are not sources of revenue from outside the city Athens, for example, received revenue from nearby silver mines, worked by slaves.
Where such revenues exist, he criticizes help to write an essay existing practice of distributing surpluses to the poor in the form of cash payments, which the poor citizens will take while demanding more. However, poverty is a genuine problem in a democracy: Instead the surplus should be allowed to accumulate until enough is available to give the poor enough money to acquire land or start a trade.
And even if there is no external surplus, “782otables who are refined and sensible will divide the poor among themselves and provide them with a start in pursuing some work” b8. It seems somewhat unusual for Aristotle to be advocating a importance of being a good citizen essay of welfare, but that is what he is importance of being a good citizen essay, on the grounds that poverty is harmful to the character of the poor and this harms the community as a whole by undermining its stability.
This differs from the discussion of the best regime in Book IV because in Book IV Aristotle’s concern was the best practical regime, meaning one that it would be possible to bring about from the material provided by existing regimes.
Here, however, his interest is in the best regime given the opportunity to create everything just as we would want it. It is “the city that is to be constituted on the basis of what one would pray for” b As would be expected, he explicitly ties it to the importance of being a good citizen essay of the best way of life: As long as this is unclear, the best regime must necessarily be unclear as well…” a We have already discussed the best way of life, as well as the fact that most people do not pursue it: This is, as we have said more than importance of being a good citizen essay, a mistake: And what is true for the individual is also true for the city.
Therefore “the best city is happy and acts nobly. It is impossible to act nobly importance of being a good citizen essay acting [to achieve] noble things; but there is no noble deed either of a man or of a city that is separate from virtue and prudence.
The courage, justice, and prudence of a city have the same power and form as those human beings share in individually who are called just, prudent, and sound.
The best city, like any other city, must educate its citizens to support its principles. The difference between this city and other cities is that the principles that it teaches its citizens are the correct principles for importance of being a good citizen essay the good life.
It is here, and nowhere else, that the excellent man and the good citizen are the same. Characteristics of the Best City What would be the characteristics of the best city we could imagine? First of all, we want the city to be the right size. Many people, Aristotle says, are confused about what this means. They assume that the bigger the importance of being a good citizen essay is, the better it will be.
But this is wrong. It is certainly true that the city must be large enough to defend itself and to be self-sufficient, but “This too, at any rate, is evident from the facts: So the right size for the city is a moderate one; it is the one that enables it to perform its function of creating virtuous citizens properly.
There is an additional problem in a regime that is too large: The size of the territory is also an important element of the ideal regime, and it too must be tailored to the purpose of the regime. Aristotle says “[the territory should be] large enough so that the inhabitants are able to live at leisure in liberal fashion and at the same time with moderation” b Again Aristotle’s main concern is with life at peace, not life at war.
On the other hand, the city and its territory should be such as to afford its inhabitants advantages in times of war; “it importance of being a good citizen essay to be difficult for enemies to enter, but readily exited by [the citizens] themselves,” and not so big that it cannot be “readily surveyable” because only such a territory is “readily defended” b It should also be defensible by sea, since importance of being a good citizen essay sea access is importance of being a good citizen essay of a good city.
Ideally the city will like Athens have a port that is several miles away from the city itself, so that contact with foreigners can be regulated.
It should also be in the right geographical location. Aristotle believed that geography was an important factor in determining the characteristics of the people living in a certain area. He thought that the Greeks had the good traits of both the Europeans spiritedness and Asians souls endowed with art and thought because of the Greek climate b While the harsh climate to the north made Europeans hardy and resilient, as well as resistant to being ruled although Aristotle did not know about the Vikings, they are perhaps the best example of what he is talking aboutand the climate of what he called Asia and we now call the Middle East produced a surplus of food that allowed the men the leisure to engage in intellectual and artistic endeavors while robbing them of spiritedness, the Greeks had the best of both worlds: However, despite the necessary attention to military issues, when we consider the ideal city, the principles which we have already elaborated about the nature of the citizens remain central.
Even in the ideal city, constructed to meet the conditions for which we would pray, the need for certain tasks, such as farming and laboring, will remain. Therefore there will also be the need for people to do these tasks. But such people should not be citizens, for as we have discussed they will lack the leisure and the intellect to participate in governing the city.
They are not really even part of the city: Many animate things i. But the city is a partnership of similar persons, for the sake of a life that is the best possible” a The citizens cannot be merchants, laborers, or farmers, “for there is a need for leisure both with a view to the creation of virtue and with a view to political activities” a1.
So all the people living in the city who are not citizens are there for the benefit of the citizens. Any goals, wishes, or desires that they might have are irrelevant; in Kant’s terms, they are treated as means rather than ends. Those that live the lives of leisure that are open to citizens because of the labor performed by the non-citizens again, including the women are all similar to one another, and therefore the appropriate political arrangement for them is “in similar fashion to participate in ruling and being ruled in turn.
For equality is the same importance of being a good citizen essay [as justice] for i need someone to write my essay who are similar, and it is difficult for a regime to last if its constitution is contrary to justice” b These citizens will only be able to rule and be ruled in turn if they have had the proper upbringing, and this is the last major topic that Aristotle takes up in the Politics.
Most cities make the mistake of neglecting education altogether, leaving it up to fathers to decide whether they will educate their sons at all, and if so what subject matter will be covered and how it will be taught.
Some cities have in fact paid attention to the importance of the proper education of the young, training them in the virtues of the regime. Unfortunately, these regimes have taught them the wrong things. Aristotle is particularly concerned with Sparta here; the Spartans devoted great effort to bringing up their sons to believe that the virtues related to war were the only ones that mattered in life.
Online Library of Liberty
They were successful; but because war is not the ultimate math education research proposal neglected the women entirely. It is important for the person devising the ideal city to learn from this mistake.
Such cities do not last unless they constantly remain at war which is not an end in itself; no one pursues war for its global harmony essay importance of being a good citizen essay. Aristotle says “Most cities of this sort preserve themselves when at war, but once having acquired [imperial] rule they come to ruin; they lose their edge, like iron, when they remain at peace.
The reason is that the legislator has not educated them to be capable of being at leisure” a6. The proper education must be instilled from the earliest stages of life, and even before; Aristotle tells us the ages that are appropriate for marriage 37 for men, 18 for women in importance of being a good citizen essay to bring about children of the finest quality, and insists on the importance of a healthful regimen for pregnant women, specifying that they take sufficient food and remain physically active.
He also says that abortion is the appropriate solution when the population threatens to grow too large b The Education of the Young Book VIII is primarily concerned with the kind of education that the children of the citizens should receive.
That this is a crucial topic for Aristotle is clear from its first sentence: It is so important that it cannot be left to individual families, as was the custom in Greece.
Instead, “Since there is a single end for the city as a whole, it is evident that education must necessarily be one and the same for all, and that the superintendence of it should be common and not on a private basis….
For common things the training too should be made common” a The importance of a common education shaping each citizen so as to enable him to serve the common good of the city recalls the discussion of how the city is prior to the individual in Book I Chapter 2; as has been quoted already in the importance of being a good citizen essay above, “one ought not even consider that a citizen belongs to himself, but rather that all belong to the city; for each individual is a part of the city” a He elaborates on the content of this education, noting that it should involve the body as well as the mind.
Aristotle includes physical education, reading and writing, drawing, and music as subjects which the young potential citizens must learn. The aim of this education is not productive or theoretical knowledge. Instead it is meant to teach the young potential citizens practical knowledge – the kind of knowledge that each of them will need to fulfill his telos and perform his duties as a citizen.
Learning the subjects that fall under the heading of productive knowledge, such as how to make shoes, would be degrading to the citizen. Learning the subjects that would fall under the heading of theoretical knowledge would be beyond the ability of most of the citizens, and is not necessary to them as citizens.
References and Further Reading The list below is not importance of being a good citizen essay to be comprehensive. It is limited to works published from to Most of these have their own bibliographies and suggested reading lists, and the reader is encouraged to take advantage of these.
Translations of Aristotle Barnes, Jonathan, ed. The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Princeton University Press, The standard edition of Aristotle’s complete works. Irwin, Terence, and Gail Fine, eds. Hackett Business continuity disaster recovery plan case study Company, Inc. Translated and edited by Roger Crisp. Cambridge University Press, This translation lacks the scholarly and critical apparatus of the Rowe importance of being a good citizen essay but is still a fine choice.
Translated and edited by Terry Irwin. Translated and with an introduction by Martin Ostwald. Macmillan Publishing Company, The translation used in preparing this cooking oil making business plan A good basic translation.
Translated and with an introduction by David Ross. Oxford University Press, Updated and revised version of a classic translation from See also Ross’ book on Aristotle below. Translation and historical introduction by Christopher Rowe; philosophical introduction and commentary by Sarah Broadie. A very importance of being a good citizen essay introduction and commentary are included with this translation of theEthics.
A good choice for the beginning student – but remember that the importance of being a good citizen essay and commentary are not meant to substitute for actually reading the text!
Translated and with an introduction by Carnes Lord. University of Chicago Press, A useful introduction and very thorough notes, identifying names, places, and terms with which the reader may not be familiar.
Translated by Peter Simpson. University of North Carolina Press, Edited by Stephen Everson. It would help to have names, places, and concepts defined and explained through footnotes for the beginning student.
A Theory of Civic Discourse. Translated and with an introduction by George A. Whether or not this requires the student to behave ethically is a matter of some debate. Speaking well in public settings was crucial to attaining political success in the Athenian democracy and is still valuable today and much of Aristotle’s practical advice remains useful.
Secondary literature – general works on Aristotle Ackrill, J. Difficult Thought Made Easy. This is probably the easiest-to-read exposition of Aristotle available; Adler says that it is aimed at “everybody – of any age, from twelve or fourteen years upward. Nevertheless, the author succeeds to a very great degree in delivering on the promise of the subtitle, expressing the basics of cover letter format uk 2015 thought in simple language using common examples and straightforward descriptions.
A Very Short Introduction. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Chapter Seven, by D. Hutchinson, covers Aristotle’s ethical theory; Chapter Eight, by C. Taylor, his political theory. Barnes himself writes the first chapter on Aristotle’s life and work, as well as an excellent introduction which includes an explanation of why no book or, I would add, encyclopedia article can substitute for reading the original Aristotelian texts.
It also includes the following: Volume 6 of his six importance of being a good citizen essay Cambridge History of Ancient Greek Philosophy written between and Another short pages introduction to Aristotle’s thought, with three sections: Wisdom and Science, Aristotle’s Ethics, and Politics. It importance of being a good citizen essay be an excellent importance of being a good citizen essay for the beginning student or anyone who just wants to be introduced to Aristotle’s philosophy.
Robinson is sympathetic to Aristotle but also to his readers, keeping things easy to read while at the same time offering enough detail about Aristotle’s doctrines to illuminate his entire system and making the interconnections among the various elements of Aristotle’s system clear. With an introduction by John L. This is a classic in the field, now in its sixth hottow2015.000webhostapp.com having first been published in Not many books can stay useful for eighty years.
Thompson, Garrett and Marshall Missner.